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Saul, L.J. (1945). Must Men Hate: By Sigmund Livingston. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1944. 344 pp.. Psychoanal Q., 14:556-557.

(1945). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 14:556-557

Must Men Hate: By Sigmund Livingston. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1944. 344 pp.

Review by:
Leon J. Saul

Although one might not expect it from the title, this book is a discussion of anti-Semitism. It is a dignified, scholarly, dispassionate statement by the founder and chairman of the Anti-Defamation League. It is not primarily a psychological or sociological study of hate: the bulk of the book is devoted to factual statements concerning various anti-Semitic occurrences and accusations. This method is based on the author's belief that the long-term solution of the problem is through a recognition of the truth. As he sees it, anti-Semitism is not based upon reason at all, but is emotional in origin. It is of course consciously utilized and exploited for political power, economic aggression, personal aggrandizement, and so on, but it is itself 'an expression of hatred the seeds of which were planted in the days of childhood, when the mind is subtly conditioned for the reception of libels and fictions. But it is without definable end, without purpose, and without objective.' The author describes how some of the seeds are planted, from verbal references in early childhood by well-meaning parents, through The Merchant of Venice in school reading, to the full political anti-Semitism of adults. This part of the book comprises the first one hundred twenty-nine pages.

Most interesting from the psychological point of view is the comparison of anti-Semitism with witchcraft. Like witchcraft, says the author, anti-Semitism arises from the emotions and is a form of delusion. What is hated is an imaginary Jew who no more exists than did the witches, and as with witchcraft, the only long-term treatment is to combat the delusion with reality. 'Many deep-seated delusions, once universally believed, have been eradicated.

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