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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Desmonde, W.H. (1953). On the Anal Origin of Money. Am. Imago, 10(4):375-378.

(1953). American Imago, 10(4):375-378

On the Anal Origin of Money

William H. Desmonde, Ph.D.

In his essay, “Character and Anal Erotism,” Freud pointed out the unconscious equation between money and excrement, and called attention to this phenomenon in primitive cultures. Ferenczi also predicted (1) that historical research would reveal a parallelism between the development of money in the growth of civilization and in individual maturational processes. This essay offers a contribution to Ferenczi's hypothesis.

The orthodox numismatic theory of the origin of coinage is that coins originated with the placing of the signet of the issuing agent upon a lump of metal, to guarantee its weight and its genuineness. Accrding to Macdonald,

“Originally, then, coins were simply pieces of sealed metal impressed with the emblem either of the issuing city or of the responsible magistrates. Whatever special influences may have come into play subsequently, types were at the outset no more than signets.” (2)

Barclay V. Head took a similar position on the origin of coinage:

“We may take it therefore as certain that the … type placed by authority on metal intended to circulate as money was simply the signet or guarantee of the issuer, a solemn affirmation on the part of an individual or of a State, that the coin was of just weight and good metal…” (3)

The custom of placing a seal upon property to safeguard the object and to guarantee its value was widespread long prior to the minting of coins, and the above theory presumes that coinage stemmed from this practice. According to Herodotus, money originated in Lydia in the seventh century, B.C. The same author relates, however, that, among the Babylonians, each man carried a signet.

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