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Richardson, S. (2020). Internal Attachment Relationships: The Five Cs versus the Two Ds. Att: New Dir. in Psychother. Relat. Psychoanal., 14(1):99-106.

(2020). Attachment: New Directions in Psychotherapy and Relational Psychoanalysis, 14(1):99-106

Internal Attachment Relationships: The Five Cs versus the Two Ds

Sue Richardson

This article explores ways of creating more secure internal attachment within complex dissociative systems characterised by multiple selves whose interactions can be problematic. Its focus is on building a supportive external and internal environment based on the five Cs: compassion, communication, co-operation, connection, and co-consciousness. A conceptual framework is outlined on the use of the five Cs at each stage of therapy. These concepts are recognised as in direct conflict with survival strategies based on the two Ds: disconnection and dissociation. Therapeutic issues presenting challenges for both client and therapist in pursuit of a changed state of mind and restructured internal relationships are considered.

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