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Rangell, L. (1956). Panel Reports—The Dream in the Practice of Psychoanalysis. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 4:122-137.

(1956). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 4:122-137

Panel Reports—The Dream in the Practice of Psychoanalysis

Leo Rangell, M.D.

This panel consisted of a number of relatively small presentations and a good deal of discussion of these, all of which added up at the end of the day to a sizable, composite whole.

The panel was opened by its Chairman, Sandor Lorand, with a brief initial presentation of "Possible Deviations in the Technique of Dream Interpretation." While it is not expected, nor is it likely, that we will learn anything new now regarding dream theory, there are many situations today which call for variations in the technique of interpreting dreams. This is due to the widening of psychoanalysis to include different types of neuroses than when Freud first formulated dream theory and technique, such as various character problems, borderline conditions, and the perversions. In this group, the resistances and defenses are frequently too strong to produce or to remember dreams. Among the deviations which may be required, Lorand mentions: (1) It is frequently necessary to analyze the manifest dream from our knowledge of other related material from the patient. While pointing out Freud's warning against the interpretation of dreams without associations from the patient, in some cases such interpretations become necessary and may in themselves start a stream of associations which can then yield worth-while material. (2) Regarding the question of the writing down of dreams, this procedure, too, in these borderline cases is sometimes necessary and helpful. The material thus obtained may yield clues which in themselves will help analyze this particular form of resistance. Freud himself, Lorand reminds us, wrote down his own dreams for later analysis.


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