Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To see translations of Freud SE or GW…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you hover your mouse over a paragraph of the Standard Edition (SE) long enough, the corresponding text from Gesammelte Werke slides from the bottom of the PEP-Web window, and vice versa.

If the slide up window bothers you, you can turn it off by checking the box “Turn off Translations” in the slide-up. But if you’ve turned it off, how do you turn it back on? The option to turn off the translations only is effective for the current session (it uses a stored cookie in your browser). So the easiest way to turn it back on again is to close your browser (all open windows), and reopen it.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Richardson, G.A. Moore, R.A. (1963). On the Manifest Dream in Schizophrenia. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 11:281-302.

(1963). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 11:281-302

On the Manifest Dream in Schizophrenia

George A. Richardson, M.D. and Robert A. Moore, M.D.


Repeated questioning of the presence (or absence) of significant criteria in manifest dream content making possible a differentiation of the dreams of schizophrenics from nonschizophrenics has led to a research project described in this paper. Sample dreams, taken from schizophrenic and nonschizophrenic patients, were randomly scattered and submitted to "diagnostic judgment" by judges, both psychoanalysts and clinical psychiatrists. At first glance it seemed that there was a higher accuracy of diagnosis of nonschizophrenia than schizophrenia, but this turned out to be more apparent than real; i.e., it represented more a reluctance to diagnose schizophrenia. The over-all accuracy of diagnoses was found to be 55.7 per cent, and approximately the same for each group. Though low, it was significantly better than chance probability (phi coefficient < .01). A surprising discovery was that the judges seemed to be arriving independently at identical although often incorrect decisions. A second phase of our study, aimed at investigating this observation, revealed essentially two significant findings. First, the judges' expectation that the schizophrenic dreams would contain much unrepressed sexual and aggressive content was not borne out in fact. Second, the judges advanced the proposition that the schizophrenic dreams might

more often convey a sense of bizarreness, strangeness, or incomprehensibility, an expectation that was borne out in fact.

The theoretical discussion begins with a comparison of a metapsychological formulation of mental processes in sleep and dream formation with mental processes in schizophrenia, and then goes on to propose a metapsychological formulation of the schizophrenic in sleep and in dream formation. As an accompaniment of the phenomenon of sleep, it is suggested that more energy in neutralized form becomes available to the schizophrenic ego, energy which may be utilized for censorship, so that the defensive forces (repression) are relatively stronger during sleeping than waking. Also, the energy which accrued to the ego during sleep is lost with awaking, a phenomenon that may interfere with the schizophrenic's dream work, in particular with secondary revision. It is suggested that the significant finding of bizarreness, strangeness, or incomprehensibility may be a consequence of the relative failure of secondary revision.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.