Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Eisnitz, A.J. (1974). On the Metapsychology of Narcissistic Pathology. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 22:279-291.

(1974). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 22:279-291

On the Metapsychology of Narcissistic Pathology

Alan J. Eisnitz, M.D.

IN AN EARLIER PAPER (Eisnitz, 1969) I proposed a modification of Freud's (1914) classification of object choice. I suggested that narcissistic object choice be defined as that wherein the major cathexis is directed to the self representation, and attachment object choice as that wherein the major cathexis is directed to the object representation. In this formulation, the emphasis is placed on the intrapsychic cathexes and representations. Most object choices can then be seen to represent a mixture of both types, although, typically, one or the other element is predominant.

The current presentation follows from these earlier considerations and uses the concept of the self representation (Jacobson, 1964) as its frame of reference. Several major advantages seem to result from this approach, some with considerable therapeutic importance. First, the significance of intrapsychic cathectic shifts is underscored, allowing a clearer view and appreciation of the internal instability and flux that exists with narcissistic conflict. In particular, this approach emphasizes the role of internally directed aggression. Second, object choice is seen to develop along both narcissistic and attachment paths. Narcissistic object choice and attachment object choice are most typically intertwined developmentally and at any given moment in the history of an object relationship. Whereas at any one time either the narcissistic or the attachment elements may predominate, attempts to separate them completely either in therapy or in theory are artificial.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.