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Kantrowitz, J.L. Paolitto, F. Sashin, J. Solomon, L. Katz, A.L. (1986). Affect Availability, Tolerance, Complexity, and Modulation in Psychoanalysis: Followup of a Longitudinal, Prospective Study. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 34:529-559.
   

(1986). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 34:529-559

Affect Availability, Tolerance, Complexity, and Modulation in Psychoanalysis: Followup of a Longitudinal, Prospective Study

Judy L. Kantrowitz, Ph.D., Frank Paolitto, M.D., Jerome Sashin, M.D., Leonard Solomon, Ph.D. and Ann L. Katz

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of 22 patients in supervised psychoanalysis showed that affect availability and tolerance changed in a positive direction during the course of psychoanalysis. In this study, we have defined criteria of change that can be clinically observed. The changes observed were present one year following the completion of psychoanalysis. Ratings of analysts' and patients' interviews, and ratings of psychological tests all revealed that patients had derived "therapeutic benefit" in relation to affect experience and management. Discriminations were made among changes in affect modulation, which reflected both loosening and tightening of controls, changes in affect availability, changes in experience of painful affects, and changes in experience of affect complexity. Analysts' interviews and psychological test data reflected notable changes in affect modulation in the direction of increased control, while patients' interviews more often reflected changes in the direction of increased expressiveness.

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