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Kantrowitz, J.L. Katz, A.L. Paolitto, F. (1990). Followup of Psychoanalysis Five to Ten Years after Termination: I. Stability of Change. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 38:471-496.

(1990). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 38:471-496

Followup of Psychoanalysis Five to Ten Years after Termination: I. Stability of Change

Judy L. Kantrowitz, Ph.D., Ann L. Katz and Frank Paolitto, M.D.


Seven out of 17 patients interviewed in a long-term followup of psychoanalysis showed either improvement in psychological functioning or a retention of psychological gains they had made during the course of psychoanalysis. Six patients deteriorated in their psychological functioning, but their gains were restored with subsequent treatment. Four patients deteriorated in psychological functioning without restoration, whether or not treatment was reentered. Neither analysts' assessments at the time of termination nor patients' assessments of themselves or assessments based on psychological tests one year after termination predicted which patients would improve or retain psychological change. No causal generalizations about factors related to psychological change can be made from these data. Different factors in interaction are suggested to account for the stability and instability of psychological change.

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