When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?
Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).
When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.
To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):
Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.
A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:
counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*
There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.
The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.
For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.
Levine, H.B. (1998). The Contemporary Kleinians of London. Edited by Roy Schafer. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, 1997, xx + 441 pp., $65.00. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 46(2):601-603.
(1998). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 46(2):601-603
The Contemporary Kleinians of London. Edited by Roy Schafer. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, 1997, xx + 441 pp., $65.00
Review by: Howard B. Levine
This collection of clinical papers, chosen and annotated by Roy Schafer, is an exemplary introduction for non-Kleinian analysts to the analytic thinking and work of the contemporary Kleinians of London. The first chapter is a brilliant essay by Schafer in which he explicates and critically discusses basic Kleinian concepts such as the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions, as well as Kleinian views on transference, countertransference, projective identification, containment, and enactment. This is followed by seventeen clinical papers by leading Kleinian authors—Anderson, Brenman, Britton, Feldman, Joseph, O'Shaughnessy, Pick, Riesenberg-Malcolm, Segal, Sodre, Spillius, and Steiner. Each of the chapters, all but two of which have appeared elsewhere, is preceded by a succinct, informative introduction by the editor. The result is a guided immersion in the best and most stimulating of contemporary Kleinian clinical thought.
As might be expected, readers of this collection will find themselves involved in discussions of material from analyses, both child and adult, that illustrate the vicissitudes of envy, splitting, projective identification, primitive pathological narcissism, and the relation between the depressive position and the oedipus complex. Those less familiar with the Kleinians will perhaps be surprised by the extent to which these authors maintain a focus in their writing and clinical work that is experience-near and sensitive to the way that patients may be using the analytic setting and relationship to maintain a precarious state of psychic equilibrium.
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