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Berghout, C.C. Zevalkink, J. de Jong, J.T. (2011). Symptomatic Distress and Personality Functioning before, during, and after Long-Term Psychoanalytic Treatment. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 59(3):583-588.

(2011). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 59(3):583-588

Symptomatic Distress and Personality Functioning before, during, and after Long-Term Psychoanalytic Treatment

Caspar C. Berghout, Jolien Zevalkink and Joop T. de Jong

In recent years psychoanalytically oriented researchers have invested in outcome studies to provide empirical evidence for the effectiveness of their treatments. This has led to a considerable (and still growing) body of research about the effectiveness of long-term ambulatory psychoanalytic treatment (Leichsenring and Rabung 2008; Shedler 2010). The present study investigated whether long-term psychoanalytic treatment (psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy) is effective in reducing symptomatic distress and improving personality functioning.


The total sample consisted of 231 participants from four mental health care organizations (Nederlands Psychoanalytisch Instituut, De Gelderse Roos, Mediant, Parnassia/Psy-Q) with 93 persons in psychoanalysis (PA) and 138 persons in psychoanalytic psychotherapy (PP). In this study we used a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design with four cohorts differing in phase of treatment (pre, during, post, follow-up) in order to obtain information about the effects of long-term treatments within a relatively short period of time.

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