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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Distel, L.M. Shepard, J. Malone, J. Waldinger, R.J. (2015). Life Span Trajectories of Depressive Symptomatology and Personality Functioning. J. Amer. Psychoanal. Assn., 63(3):NP10-NP14.

(2015). Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 63(3):NP10-NP14

Life Span Trajectories of Depressive Symptomatology and Personality Functioning

Laura M.L. Distel, John Shepard, Johanna Malone and Robert J. Waldinger

Underlying personality characteristics influence the presentation of depressive symptomatology in clinical settings (see, e.g., Luyten and Blatt 2007). Depression may appear differently across individuals depending on a person's specific constellation of defense mechanisms and personality traits (Mullen et al. 1999). While the relationship between personality and depression has been studied in cross-sectional (Bloch et al. 1993) and short-term longitudinal studies, no research to date has examined prospectively coded life span trajectories of depression in relation to personality functioning. A life span developmental approach may clarify whether personality characteristics are related not only to the presence of depression but also to the way depression unfolds in an individual across time.

The present study examines 75-year trajectories of depressive symptomatology in relation to personality functioning. We examine trajectories in relation to both defense mechanisms and personality traits. Participants were part of the Study of Adult Development (Vaillant 2012), which has followed a sample of 268 men from their sophomore year of college starting in 1938 until the present. At the project's outset, these men were assessed by internists, psychiatrists, psychologists, and anthropologists. Since that time, the men have completed questionnaires approximately every two years, their medical records have been obtained every five years, and they have been interviewed by study staff every ten to fifteen years. Using the data from these sources, we have coded the presence of depressive symptomatology at five-year intervals across the life span, giving us fifteen waves of dimensional data.

[This is a summary excerpt from the full text of the journal article. The full text of the document is available to journal subscribers on the publisher's website here.]

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