Are you having difficulty reading an article due its font size? In order to make the content on PEP-Web larger (zoom in), press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the plus sign (+). Press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the minus sign (-) to make the content smaller (zoom out). To go back to 100% size (normal size), press Ctrl (⌘Command on the Mac) + 0 (the number 0).
Another way on Windows: Hold the Ctrl key and scroll the mouse wheel up or down to zoom in and out (respectively) of the webpage. Laptop users may use two fingers and separate them or bring them together while pressing the mouse track pad.
Safari users: You can also improve the readability of you browser when using Safari, with the Reader Mode: Go to PEP-Web. Right-click the URL box and select Settings for This Website, or go to Safari > Settings for This Website. A large pop-up will appear underneath the URL box. Look for the header that reads, “When visiting this website.” If you want Reader mode to always work on this site, check the box for “Use Reader when available.”
For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.
Akhtar, S. (2002). Editor's Introduction: The Social Context of Addiction. J. Appl. Psychoanal. Stud., 4(4):445-446.
(2002). Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 4(4):445-446
Introduction: Book Review and Commentary
Editor's Introduction: The Social Context of Addiction
Review by: Salman Akhtar
In an aphoristic statement made early during his career, Freud declared masturbation to be the “primal addiction” (1897, p. 287). In doing so, he hinted at all the essential features of the malady in Zen-like simplicity. These features, of course, are (i) a narcissistic orientation, (ii) turning away from deep object relations, (iii) manipulation of the body, and (iv) replacement of genital sexual pleasure by a regressive pregenitalsatisfaction.
Freud's ideas were elaborated by subsequent analysts using different vantage points on the human psyche. From the drive theory perspective, addiction was correlated with oral dependency and regression from genital to masturbatory pleasure (Abraham, 1908; Knight, 1937; Fenichel, 1945). From the ego psychology perspective, affect primitivization, the ego's vulnerability to regressive solutions, use of denial, lack of self-governance, and predominance of primitive defenses were implicated (Rado, 1933; Krystal and Raskin, 1970; Mack, 1981). From the object relations viewpoint, a borderlinecharacter organization (Kernberg, 1967) and loss of transitional relatedness were regarded as major features. Finally, from the self psychology perspective addiction was seen as a failure of self-regulation (Levin, 1987; Keller, 1992). While not ignoring the role of oedipal factors, almost all authors conclude that the “fundamental wound of the addict's ego” (Simmel, 1948, p. 27) was caused by early, preoedipal damage to the personality. At the same time, they acknowledged the role of social variables and constitutional vulnerabilities, which perhaps explains the fact that not all individuals with preoedipal ego damage develop addiction.
This intrapsychic emphasis while immensely important needs enrichment from the external sociocultural vantage point. After all, addiction occurs in the setting of an anguished and broken heart but also of economic hardship, peer pressure, loneliness, and vulnerability to seductions of advertising, drug trafficking, and industry-related shenanigans of all sorts. In this issue, we add to the literature on the social context of addiction.
[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]