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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Elder, P.J. (1986). Kleinian Developments in the Concept of Narcissism. Brit. J. Psychother., 3(1):65-71.

(1986). British Journal of Psychotherapy, 3(1):65-71

Kleinian Developments in the Concept of Narcissism

Penelope J. Elder

In this paper I want to explore some of the more recent ideas regarding the concept of narcissism as it has been described and developed since the early part of this century when three papers gave a particular focus to the subject: Freud's ‘On Narcissism: An Introduction’ (1914), Jones's paper on pathological narcissistic character traits ‘The God Complex’ 1913), and Abraham's paper ‘A Particular Form of Neurotic Resistance against the Psychoanalytic Method’ (1919).

Even before 1914 Freud had introduced the concept of the existence of a stage in sexual development between auto-erotism and object love. The subject ‘begins by taking himself, his own body, as his love-object’. But it is his paper ‘On Narcissism’ which integrates the notion into psychoanalytic theory as a whole. He puts forward the idea that the ego does not exist from the very first as a unity and that a ‘new psychical action’ has to take place in order to bring about narcissism.

Freud maintains an opposition between a first, objectless narcissistic state and object relations. This primitive state, now called ‘Primary Narcissism’, is supposed to be characterised by the total absence of any relationship to the outside world and by a lack of differentiation between ego and id. He seems however to modify his views on this in ‘Mourning and Melancholia’ where he speaks of that state as being a ‘narcissistic identification with the object’.

[This is a summary excerpt from the full text of the journal article. The full text of the document is available to journal subscribers on the publisher's website here.]

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