[We are aiming to reprint abstracts of articles from other Journals which might interest psychotherapists, who may not see these Journals. So far we have an arrangement with The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, The International Review of Pscyho-Analysis, The Journal of Analytical Psychology, and The British Journal of Medical Psychology. If this proves popular we may be able to extend it to other Journals. - Ed.]
1. British Journal of Medical Psychology, Volume 59, Part 1, March 1986
The Psychotherapy of Mania
Focal dynamicpsychotherapy with acute manic patients has been a neglected treatment modality. In young adults with sound premorbid personalities and well-developed ambition systems, focal dynamicpsychotherapy is useful in the manic stage; it shortens the process of elaboration of major conflicts related to self-image and self-ideal. Three young Israeli soldiers' case material is discussed in whom, due to different growth constellations, the hope to serve in the army in specific capacities had been a central motivating and consolidating factor in their personalitydevelopment. Their confrontation with the realities and frustrations of military life caused them to react with a manic syndrome which brought them to treatment. Therapeutic insight led to the reshaping of their ambition to a more adaptive level.
2. British Journal of Medical Psychology, Volume 59, Part 1, March 1986
Oedipal Determinants in Differential Outcome of Bereavement
Harwant S. Gill
According to psychoanalytic theory, a bereaved individual's prior relationship with the lost person affects his vulnerability to bereavement. Freud attributed the vulnerability to the intensity of ambivalence, and Fenichel saw Oedipal rivalry as one example of that ambivalence. It is argued that, after the death of a parent, reality testing, crucial to the resolution of the Oedipus complex, is disrupted differently for children of the same sex, from those of the opposite %ex. Based on Freud's and Fenichel's clinical observations, the effects of disrupted reality testing were transformed into a testable hypothesis. The predictions were validated by testing them against the data supplied by patients before they had any professional contact, when two-thirds of bereaved psychotherapy patients exhibited different effects when the deceased parent was of the same sex, from when he/she was of the opposite sex. A majority of the same-sex children develop an unconsciouse sense of guilt, which blocks their expression of Oedipal attitudes towards both parents and which attacks their capacity to function adequately at work, and in their sex-linked roles; while the opposite-sex children maintain their preference for the dead parent, aversion to the alive one, and have idealized expectations of their lovers or spouses.
Identification and its Vicissitudes as Observed in Adolescence
Inaura Carneiro Leao
The author emphasizes two main types of identificationprocesses: primary or narcissistic identification prevailing in self-selfobject relationships, and implying the use of idealizing libido, before the differentiation self-selfobject is achieved; secondary identification occuring at a later developmental phase, where there is a clear-cut differentiation between self and object. Differing from Kohut's point of view on identity, she feels that what is described by self psychology as the feeling of ‘cohesion, continuity in time and the affective colouring of the self’ corresponds to the sense of identity.
Adolescence is viewed, not only as a chronological phase, but primarily as a state. of mind, with specific characteristics, resulting from the transformations of the self, culminating in the establishment of the sense of identity. When there is a traumatic disillusionment in the idealized self-object during early development, this leads to a fixed adolescent state of mind, independent of chronological age, which can be more clearly observed in the analysis of adult patients with self pathology.
A clinical case of an adult patient illustrates the author's point and shows that the processes of idealization, de-idealization and transmuting internalizations, occurring both in adolescence and during the analytic treatment, are typical of this mental state.
Colour Blindness: Further Clinical Notes on Disillusion, Countertransference and Transference, with Some Relevant History
Defective colour vision affects one out of twelve male analysands and analysists, but its psychological consequences have been disregarded because of the transference secrecy of the defective and the countertransference scotoma of analysts. Adding to the account of three colour defectives described in an earlier paper, several episodes from a fourth and one from a fifth are reported. Some relevant history is noted, including the discovery of the condition and the later invention of the misleading term ‘colour blindness’. Two instances are given of its use by normally-visioned analysands to describe what they felt to be an impossible relation to me. The defective inevitably experiences during his early years a specific and continuing series of occasions for disillusion, in Winnicott's sense of the term, which tends to affect the capacity for intimacy.
Identification and its Vicissitudes as Observed in the Perversions
This paper aims to contribute to the clarification of the different meanings of the concept of identification and the different processes involved in the making of an identification, by considering the perversions as disorders of internalization. The different forms of internalization are regarded as lying along a continuum of which identification is at one extreme and involves the incorporation of (part of) the object-representation into the self-representation. The pervert is shown to be unable to carry out the process of identification because he is fixated at an early developmental phase which I refer to as the ‘core complex’: instead of identification he has to make use of ‘simulation’ in which the subject unconsciously models himself on (parts of) the object. The crucial role the body plays in these dynamics is considered. Exploration of these issues highlights how, in order for identification to take place, the issues of the core complex need to be adequately resolved in the course of normal development.
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(1986). Abstracts from other Journals. Brit. J. Psychother, 3(1):93-95