The Journal of Analytical Psychology, Volume 32, Number 1, January 1987
Evidence of Collective Memory: A Test of Sheldrake's Theory
The Jungian archetype is an example of Sheldrake's hypothesis of formative causation, both of which postulate collective memory. The presence of collective memory was tested by having three groups of students learn the Morse Code, which had been previously learned by a large number of people, and a Novel Code that had never been learned by others and was constructed so as to be of equal intrinsic difficulty. As predicted, the Morse Code was initially easier to learn, and the Novel Code itself became easier over the three groups. The results confirm Sheldrake's theory and lend credibility to Jung's concepts of the archetype and the collective unconscious while suggesting that the latter contains much more than archetypal memories. It was found that this phenomenon was related to the feeling function being introverted or ambiverted rather than extraverted. This suggests that introverted feeling acts as a receiving mechanism for collective memory and leads to the speculation that collective memory includes feeling tones attached to content. It may therefore be that extraverted feeling acts as a sending mechanism which creates that feeling tone.
This paper is composed of two parts. The first one focuses on transference, place of interaction of the past and of the present. The interpretation, aimed at its clarification, tackles the past in the present and the progressive differentiation of the one from the other.
The relationship between past and present in the transference is studied and therefore their capacity to represent one another, and on the contrary, to be used as a defence against the other. How a past, that is not remembered but rather denied, can be repeated and dramatized in the transference is shown in clinical examples. This past can be ‘discovered’ through the clarification of the real transference.
In the second part the authors travel once again ‘the royal road of the unconscious’ and deal with the subject from the point of view of the interpretation of dreams in the analytic session. They develop the concept of the ‘two latent contents of the dream’. Besides the classical sense of the formula ‘latent content of the dream’ there is a second sense. In this latter the manifest content is the reflection of the structure and functioning of the psychic apparatus. They describe three different types of dreams. Clinical examples to illustrate this thesis are also given.
On Psycho-Analysis and Neuroscience: Freud's Attitude to the Localizationist Tradition
Mark Solms Michael Saling
This study examines the relationship between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. It argues that the Project, the traditional starting-point for such an examination, provides few substantial links between Freud's neurological and psychoanalytic careers. The neurological model that the Project endorsed was not derived from Freud's formal neurological education, as has so often been assumed. It was based, instead, on the Jacksonian model that he developed in ‘On aphasia’ in 1891.
‘On aphasia’ appears to be the real ‘missing link’ between Freud's neurological and psychological years. The fundamental principles that it endorsed provided the framework within which psychoanalysis developed.
After Freud's death, Luria developed the science of dynamic neuropsychology, which is based on the same fundamental neurological assumptions as ‘On aphasia’. Dynamic neuropsychology approaches brain functioning in a way that would have been entirely acceptable to Freud. Considering the deep-rooted compatibility between Luria's neuropsychology and Frued's psychoanalysis, it would be beneficial for both sciences if they were to collaborate on issues of common interest. This makes Freud's lifelong ambition that psychoanalysis be rejoined with neuroscience a very real possibility.
Non-Verbal Behaviour and Body Organ Fantasies. Their Relation to Body Image Formation and Symptomatology
Per Roak Anthi
A deliberate analytic approach to various non-verbal manifestations may in some cases be a point of departure for exploring idiosyncratic representations of body organs and body image. Relevant clinical material is presented to illustrate how such representations may be developed. Further, I have attempted to suggest how the roots of body image formation reflect early levels of concept formation influenced by primary process and derived from an amalgamation of what has been called enactive and imagic modes of thinking (McLaughlin 1984). The enactive mode comprises a combination of affective processes entwined with proprioceptive, visceral, motoric and sensory feeling. The imagic mode refers to visual, auditory, tactile and gustatory impressions (Horowitz 1983).
The pre-oedipal and oedipal determinants of an analysand's symptomatology and of his body image pathology are examined. Moreover, the pre-oedipal antecedents of his Oedipus and castration complex are illuminated.
The psychic and somatic implications of his particular ‘testicularization’ of his body and of his body image fantasies are discussed.
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British Journal of Medical Psychology, Volume 59, Part 4, December 1986
Narcissistic Vulnerability and the Fragile Self: A Failure of Mirroring
The phenomenon of narcissistic vulnerability is described and the history of the concept is outlined. With clinical illustrations from individual and group psychotherapy it is described how some people are prone to show strong reactions to the narcissistic injuries of feeling slighted or ignored. These are associated with a proneness to shame. Drawing on Broucek's suggestion that the basis of the sense of self is the sense of efficacy, it is proposed that the fundamental injury is an incapacity to evoke a meaningful emotional response in the caretaker. This notion is compared with the related views of Winnicott and Kohut. It is apparent that a superficial mirroring response is not sufficient; what the child (and patient) needs is a deeper empathic response. In therapy, patients attempt to master the original injury by seeking again a response that mirrors in depth.
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(1987). Abstracts from other Journals. Brit. J. Psychother, 3(4):393-395