The International Journal of Psycho-analysis, Volume 68, Part 3, 1987
Pre-Oedipal Identification and the Cathexis of Autistic Objects in the Aetiology of Adult Psychopathology
There are more and more references in the literature to patients who are difficult to categorize and who arouse a particular counter-transference reaction of boredom or paralysis in the analyst. The verbal communication seems ineffective, the analysis tends to become prolonged and without real change in the patient. The hypothesis is made that these phenomena may arise from the persistence of certain types of objectcathexis originating in the normal autisticphase of development, where bodily sensations predominate and verbal communication is not yet established. Tustin's work is quoted as particularly illuminating this phase of the infant's life, and a clinical example is given.
This paper examines the contribution to the psychoanalytic movement of women who joined it between 1902 and 1930. The context is set by a brief account of the emergence, in three stages, of the institutional structure of the early movement. The strength of the membership, both male and female, is established by the first comprehensive survey of the early psychoanalytic societies. The contribution of women is assessed by estimating their success, or lack of it, in four areas; gaining important institutional positions; theory; clinical work; and professional recognition and personal satisfaction. A high level of success is noted in all these areas. A list of the 133 early women members identified in the survey is included as an Appendix.
This paper selects significant passages from the analysis of one patient to illustrate the author's study of the dynamics within the self. She examines and describes the potentially creative dynamism which arises when the self of the patient activates responses within the analyst. Certain theories of the self put forward by psychoanalysts and analytical psychologists are touched on from the point of view especially of the question of mutative activity within the self. The concept of deintegration of the self is used in connection with the author's main concern in this paper, which is to examine change in analysis as a basic necessity for ego development, relationship with others, and individuation.
Masochism: The Shadow Side of the Archetypal Need to Venerate and Worship
This paper is essentially speculative. The reactions, behaviour, and phantasies of several patients have led me to reflect whether there might be a connection between masochism on the one hand and, on the other, the belief in, worship of, and surrender to, a deity, albeit in its perverted, its shadow form.
British Journal of Medical Psychology, Volume 60, Part 3, September 1987
Construction and Constriction in Agoraphobia
David Winter and Kevin Gournay
A formulation of agoraphobia is presented in personal construct theory terms. It is hypothesized that the construing of agoraphobics and their spouses is characterized by low cognitive awareness
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of constructs concerning interpersonal conflict and lack of tenderness; by dilemmas in which the ability to go out implies possible infidelity; and by low self-esteem in the agoraphobic and high self-esteem in their spouse. Evidence in support of these hypotheses is provided by a repertory grid study comparing agoraphobics, non-agoraphobic neurotics, spouses of both client groups, and normal subjects. Features of construing of agoraphobic and spouse are shown to be predictive of the agoraphobic's response to behaviour therapy, and therapeutic improvement to be associated with some reconstruction in the above areas. The role of mutual validation of constructions between agoraphobic and spouse in the maintenance of agoraphobic behaviour is discussed, as are implications for the treatment of agoraphobia.
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(1988). Abstracts from other Journals. Brit. J. Psychother, 4(3):337-339