International Journal of Psycho-analysis. Volume 68, Part 4. 1987
Infant Observation from before Birth
This paper describes research on the extension of infant observation to pro-natal life with the aid of ultrasounds. First there is some mention of the technique ofultrasounds and of the advances in our knowledge of pre-natal life brought about by it. A description of the research follows: 5-6 ultrasonographic observations Wrap about one hour each starting from the 14th-18th week of pregnancy a carried nut at monthly intervals till the end of pregnancy. During such observations the behaviour of the foetus is observed and each time the behaviour of the mother is also taken into account. After birth mother and child are then followed at home with infant observations as described by Bick. So far this research seems to be pointing to the possibility of detecting In rly markers of character already in utero. T' wo examples are given to illustrate this tbesis.
Resistances in the Treatment of a Sexually Molested Six-Year-Old Girl
Kato van Leeuwen
Increased public awareness of the high incidence of sexual abuse of children is prompting re-examination of the psychological consequences of childhood sexual seduction. The conspiracy ofesilence, which insulates adult society against the terrifying discovery that large numbers of children are molested, exploited and raped, also affectschild analysts. Furthermore, many of us have only limited experience with child sexual abuse and may fail to deal with or recognize the signs and symptoms if consulted for other reasons.
A child analysis workshop originally devoted to early psychic trauma and play disruption turned its attention exclusively to child sexual abuse as a form of trauma, The paper focuses on what we gleaned and how these findings apply to the treatment of a latency-age gal and the resistance encountered. The case presented illustrates the profound effects of sexual stamen, the development and characterstructure of a child who functioned relatively well before the traumatic events took place.
Some Aspects of Female Sexuality, Psychopathology and Their Relation to Infantile States of Mind
A description of a claustrophobic state, of mind in an adult patient is examined and investigated to reveal a predominance of childlike structures encapsulated in sexual acts which are twodimensional in quality. Together the patient's and analyst's work reveals maturational failures acted in the present that are understood and discussed in the context of Fordham's theory of deintegration and reintegration and Melzer's development of Klein's concept of projective identification and Bion's concept of containercontained
International Journal of Psycho-analysis, Volume 68, Part 4, 1987
Rethinking the Unconscious: The Unacknowledged Contribution of Edward Sapir to Claude Levi-Strauss and Jacques Lacan
Eugene B. Brody
Sapir defined the human u mechanism (based on phenomes learned during acquisition) which imposes linguistic forms upon out-or awareness ‘psvcl is content’ or ‘elemens of experience’ rather than as a repository of repressed impulses or ideas striving for expression. In
contemporary terms this activity may he regarded as 'information processing prequisite to experiential res mines becoming available to consciousattention- It also imposes (as in ‘projecting’) the observer's cultural forms, modified by developmental experience, upon communications from others. This view antedates Levi-Strauss' unconscious which tramlnrms' elementsofthepast ‘into language’ and Lacan's unconscious structured ‘like a langilace’ The, boreal psychoanalytic sm ly of out-ortawareness mental processes. understood as a dialectic shaped by the discrepancy in power between analyst and patient, illuminates the unstable relationship between the words or signifiers selected by the patient from the infinite lexicon of vailable, usuallysocially shared, verbal oman-verbal language (his plane of expression) and tits tried preconscious collections of signifieds, including cultural as well as personal developmental knowledgn(his plane of content).
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British Journal of Medical Psychology, Volume 60, Part 4, 1987
Formulating and Evaluating Hypotheses in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy
David L. Smith
Little psychoanalytic literature exists dealing with the formulation and evaluation of hypotheses in the therapeutic situation. This paper is an initial exploration and systematization of criteria presently in use. Hypothesis formation is discussed in terms of the accumulation of data and its contextualization. Then follows an account of prevalidadon, the silent evaluation of an hypothesis. Before an hypothesis can he turned into an intervention considerations of spoken form, order and timing must betaken into account Finally, after intervening, post-validation can occur: the evaluation of the hypothesis on the basis of the patient's responses.
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(1988). Abstracts from other Journals. Brit. J. Psychother, 5(1):132-134