The Androgyne: Some Inconclusive Reflections on Sexual Perversions
After a brief introduction on the relevance of the animus and the anima, Jung's model of the spectrum to indicate the range of possible archetypal experience is related to Bion's postulate of beta and alpha elements.
Two cases are then described. Both are bisexual, but one is a practising homosexual while the other channels his homosexuality into very intense masturbatory phantasies. The possible origins of the differences are then discussed in the light of Jung's and Bion's conceptions and also the ‘collated internal object’ as defined by Masud Khan.
Stoller raises the question of whether there exists a clear-cut boundary between normality and perversion. He thinks not and give compelling reasons, but remains in some doubt. He does, however, give strong support to the idea that perversion consists in humiliation. I would include in this homosexuality and lesbianism. In response to Stoller's difficulty in recognising a category of normality, I propose as a criterion enchantment. I am in agreement with Stoller that the perversions do not have a homosexual underlay. The present theory follows Stoller's view that both the perversions and homosexuality manifest a search for masculinity. With this I would bracket fear of the female. Over and above a genetic contribution and family influences, I attribute the psychical structure to the phantasies of the phallic woman and the breast-endowed man. These form a combinedparent figure which, with the idea of androgyny, enable us to make sense of a number of the wellknown perversions, i.e. to understand their aim.
No clinical illustrations are offered. The theory is put forward to render the phenomena intelligible and to indicate what might be sought for clinically.
The present investigation is put forward not as an alternative to genetic factors nor to family and social influences which constitute a historical chain but as having to do with a level of psychological structure produced by and additional to those chains of historic causes.
A distinction was drawn between observation of children, as described in child development studies and the psychoanalytic observation of infants by students in training. Technical and theoretical aspects of the seminars and of the students' work were discussed. Unfortunately, only seldom is it possible to identify characteristics of the individual child. The main gains for the student are an appreciation of the mutual influences between infant and parents, as well as between worker and subjects, a vivid experience of the concept of development and of the importance of waiting before acting or forming interpretations of his data. The role of observer was described and comparisons made with that of the analyst. It was stressed that the seminar leader should not simply accept or correct the student's interpretations but, instead, help him to find the analytic concepts that best make sense of his findings. These seminars, extending over a whole academic year, give the training establishment a unique assessment of the student's ability to relate to his subjects and of his capacity to learn and to change.
British Journal of Medical Psychology, Volume 61, Part 2, 1988
Empathy in Psychiatric Patients
W. Ladisich W.B. Feil
The definition of empathy is controversial. Here one aspect of it, namely perception of others' feelings and personality, was investigated. Empathy was assessed by comparing self-rating with rating by other persons. Group psychotherapy patients were used. Nineteen patients with a history of schizophrenic psychosis and 20 neurotics were found to have lower empathy than 20 patients with borderlinepersonality disorders whose empathy was as high as the descriptively used scores of four psychotherapists. Empathy was not found to be dependent on similarity of personalities. It con elated negatively with obsessional features such as emotional constriction or rigidity. The borderline patients' high empathy appeared of particular interest in view of clinical observations that psychotics had high empathy before the development of psychosis. The possible relevance of empathy in the development of psychosis is discussed.
Transference, Language and Affect in the Treatment of Bulimarexic
Bulimarexic patients in analysis seem to defend against the transference. For them, defending against the transference is the transference. They believe that the analyst does not intend to listen to them. They do not believe in the communicative function of words. Their words are used as weapons to attack the analyst, or as a decoy to avoid self-revelation. They treat the analyst's words with sarcasm and disbelief while fearing the penetrating power of his/her words.
This description suggests a disturbance of the communicative function of language. This paper explores the probable genetic and dynamic sources of this disturbance. The clinical evidence suggests a disturbance of the wish to communicate at the oral and anal stages. The patient's language develops normally at the level of linguistic competence. It fails, however, to connect with the affective components of the sense of self and therefore interferes with the verbalization of subjective experience.
Many analyses end prematurely or too late. Premature terminations can reflect the revival of adolescent patterns of leaving and emerge in treatment as a regression from a differentiated to an ‘externalizing transference’. Such a move often precedes, and may be mistaken for, a timely termination and sometimes only the counter-reaction of the analyst can distinguish the two. Using clinical material an attempt is made to contrast premature and timely terminations. One of the countertransference hindrances to a timely termination is seen in the confusion between the goals of treatment and the criteria for starting a terminationphase. In the case presented, the terminationphase did not start with the resolution of conflicts or the transference neurosis but with an optimal level of a working alliance which in itself stemmed from a sustained oedipal transference. In response to the loss of the analyst and the end of analysis the patient could internalize the working alliance and establish a self-analytic function.
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(1989). Abstracts from other Journals. Brit. J. Psychother, 5(3):454-456