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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Davidson, L. (1988). Culture and Psychoanalysis—From Marginality to Pluralism. Contemp. Psychoanal., 24:74-90.

(1988). Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 24:74-90

Culture and Psychoanalysis—From Marginality to Pluralism

Leah Davidson, M.D.

THIS PAPER IS BASED ON the assumption that all theories, psychoanalytic theory included, are products of their time and culture. To quote Levenson:

We, our patients, their complaints, our very concepts of treatment and cure, are all manifestations of the particular epoch in which we live, and ultimately of each other. We are as embedded in our time and place as bugs in amber (Levenson, 1972).

Likewise Thomas Kuhn writes about the influence of previous conceptualization on current theory:

Men whose research is based on shared paradigms are committed to the same rules and standards for scientific practice. That commitment and the apparent consensus it produces are prerequisites for normal science, i.e. for the genesis and continuation of a particular research tradition (Kuhn, 1971).

Thus culture and its product, scientific theory, form a matrix, in and around our work, which we mostly take for granted. Can this matrix ever really be examined, so that its effect on an operational dyadic field may be objectively assessed?

The examination of different cultures has traditionally belonged to the disciplines of sociology and anthropology, and despite cross fertilization between these disciplines and psychoanalysis, work with individual patients seldom includes anthropological, sociological or other ethnically relevant data. As analysts we are primarily concerned with interactions and transactions within the psychoanalytic dyad; i.e. transference-countertransference issues, and interpersonal processes.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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