Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To turn on (or off) thumbnails in the list of videos….

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To visualize a snapshot of a Video in PEP Web, simply turn on the Preview feature located above the results list of the Videos Section.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Abrams, D.M. (1992). The Dream's Mirror of Reality. Contemp. Psychoanal., 28:50-71.

(1992). Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 28:50-71

The Dream's Mirror of Reality

David M. Abrams, Ph.D.

All the material making up the content of a dream is in some way derived from experience.
S. Freud, Interpretation of Dreams

IN THE HISTORY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS, there is a tradition of considering clinical data from multiple points of view in Freud's (1915b) metapsychological assumption's and Waelder's (1936) principle of multiple determination. After Hartmann's (1939) work on ego adaptation, Rapaport and Gill (1959) suggested that Freud's original metapsychological list should be expanded to include the economic, dynamic, topographic, structural, genetic, and adaptive points of view. Anna Freud (1965) broadened this even further into a comprehensive metapsychological profile for clinical data considering these and other viewpoints from a developmental perspective.

In this manner, Freudian theory has been able to reconsider alternative viewpoints that were first opposed and to gradually integrate them into an increasingly multi-dimensional psychoanalysis, as in the rejection of Alder's (1908) suggestion of an aggressive drive coexistent with the libido that was later incorporated into Freud's (1920) dual instinct theory. More recently, the integration of aspects of Kleinian object relations theory and Freudian ego psychology by Winnicott, Mahler, and Kernberg and Kohut's expansion of Freud's (1914) sketch on narcissism into a separate line has led to Freudian proposals to add object relations and self psychology to Freud's list of metapsychological points of view (Pine, 1990) or to Anna Freud's developmental lines (Gedo and Goldberg, 1973).

While there is a trend in discussions of Freudian theory to incorporate aspects of Sullivan and Thompson, e.g.,

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.