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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Fisher, D.J. (1991). Bruno Bettelheim's achievement. Free Associations, 2(2):191-201.

(1991). Free Associations, 2(2):191-201

The Psychoanalytic Movement

Bruno Bettelheim's achievement

David James Fisher

Bruno Bettelheim lived a long and eventful life, producing a substantial and evocative body of work, sixteen books in all, not to mention a prodigious number of articles, prefaces, book reviews and journalism. For over thirty years, he taught at the University of Chicago, directed the Orthogenic School for emotionally disturbed children, supervised mental health professionals and carried on a psychoanalytic practice. Semi-retired from 1973, first living in Northern California and then in Santa Monica, California, he wrote an additional six books in these last fifteen years, including some of his best, while continuing to teach, lecture and supervise.

I see Bettelheim as having taken the impassioned argument of Freud's 1926 The Question of Lay Analysis as his life's mission. Because he occupied a privileged position among contemporary lay analysts, and because his name is practically synonymous with lay analysis, I intend to use a few thoughts from Freud's text to assess what Bettelheim achieved as an analyst.


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