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Leuzinger-Bohleber, M. (2010). Psychoanalytic Preventions/Interventions and Playing “Rough-and-Tumble” Games: Alternatives to Medical Treatments of Children Suffering from ADHD. Int. J. Appl. Psychoanal. Stud., 7(4):332-338.

(2010). International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 7(4):332-338

Brief Communications

Psychoanalytic Preventions/Interventions and Playing “Rough-and-Tumble” Games: Alternatives to Medical Treatments of Children Suffering from ADHD

Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber, M.D.

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is currently one of the most frequently diagnosed conditions in children and adolescents. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria, ADHD is diagnosed if four conditions are met. First, there must be either a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity that occurs more frequently than is typical for the patient's age. Second, some of the symptoms must have been present before the age of seven. Third, the symptoms must be observed in at least two settings, such as at home and at school or work. Finally, clear evidence is required of compromised social, academic, or occupational functioning. The estimated prevalence rate at the age of 6 to 18 years is between two and six percent. There also is a high comorbidity between ADHD and other psychopa-thologies such as depression (see, e.g. Bhardwaj & Goodyer, 2009, p. 178).

Medical treatment has continuously and dramatically increased since the 1990s. All over the world, 10 million children are now treated with amphetamines after having been diagnosed with ADHD, a number that has increased dramatically. In Germany, 34 kg of methylphenidate were sold annually in drug stores in 1993; by 2009, this had risen to 1735 kg, an increase of 5103 percent (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, 2010).

At this time, a heated debate is taking place concerning the explanations and treatments for ADHD in children.

[This is a summary excerpt from the full text of the journal article. The full text of the document is available to journal subscribers on the publisher's website here.]

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