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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”.  What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified.  The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search.  In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic.  The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits.  Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents. 

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching.  What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.  

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Oberndorf, C.P. (1920). Reaction to Personal Names. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 1:223-230.

(1920). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 1:223-230

Reaction to Personal Names

C. P. Oberndorf

In a previous communication I cited several examples which demonstrated how unpleasant emotional reaction to personal names may result from an unconscious feeling on the part of the individual bearing that name that it in some way revealed an inherent weakness in personality which the individual wished to conceal. It was also pointed out that such persons through the alteration of their names secured an unconscious outlet for the desire to rectify these deficiencies which they had in some way come to identify with their names.

This view is the reverse of theories commonly advanced that the name is really an influencial factor which operates as a considerable stimulus or detriment to the accomplishments of its bearer. Such a general conception is exemplified by the following quotation from Walsh's "Handbook of Literary Curiosities" — "The names that have become famous are those which have a sonorous and stately ring. — One can understand how an obscure Corsican with such a name as Napoleon Bonaparte might have conquered the world. Herbert Lythe becomes famous as Maurice Barrymore — and John Rowlandson would never have become a great explorer unless he had first changed his name to Henry M. Stanley."


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