Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Stärcke, A. (1920). The Reversal of the Libido-Sign in Delusions of Persecution. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 1:231-234.

(1920). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 1:231-234

The Reversal of the Libido-Sign in Delusions of Persecution

August Stärcke

It is well known that in delusions of persecution the figure of the loved one reappears as the "persecutor". As a rule it is more or less disguised: for instance, instead of the beloved father there emerges the persecuting superior. Freud has called this phenomenon the return of the repressed libido, and more especially its return with a reversal of the sign; that is to say that what was repressed in the shape of love returns as hatred. This hatred is projected, and represents the content of the delusion.

The essential condition that must be fulfilled before such a reversal of sign can take place is naturally to be found in some attitude of ambivalency. But the question of its particular determinants remains to be discussed.

According to my observations, the content of the delusion is frequently anal persecution. Patients often complain of all sorts of other tortures, of radiations, etc., or simply of being teased or injured by some particular person. But even in these cases, if their confidence can be won, they may unexpectedly confess, with every sign of their surrendering some important secret, that, apart from all this, the essence of the matter consists in an inconceivable piece of villainy, which cannot even be spoken of, and can only be indicated by hints and gestures. Here are one or two instances:

An elderly female patient (a clinical mixed type, with features of manic-depressive insanity and hypochondriacal and nihilistic delusions of persecution) complained among other things that they had "turned her the wrong way round".

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2019, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.