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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

(1921). Discussion of Tic. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 2:477-482.

(1921). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 2:477-482

Discussion of Tic

Dr. J. Harnik recognised especially the great similarity between traumatic neuroses and tic which Ferenczi had pointed out both as regards the (motor) symptoms and the conjectured mechanism of origin of the disease. A case of generalised tic, which he had had the opportunity of investigating analytically for some time, led him to suspect that an uncontrolled, strong affect of fright (e.g. as a result of libidinal fright traumata) was the precipitating etiological factor of the disease. It seemed to him that in such cases—as Freud had similarly found in the traumatic neuroses—the mental machinery, as a result of the traumatic experience, was overwhelmed with a mass of (libidinal) stimuli which could not any longer be controlled by the customary mechanism of repression. The motor symptoms of tic then served as a safeguard against these libidinal demands in the sense Ferenczi had indicated.

Dr. Abraham said that the term tic had been originally used equally for entirely heterogeneous symptoms, such as 'tic douloureux' (trigeminal neuralgia), facial nerve spasm, and many compulsive motor symptoms, as well as for those conditions which were today termed tic.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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