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Riggall, R.M. (1924). General: Alice G. Ikin. The Ontogenesis of Introvert and Extrovert Tendencies. British Journal of Medical Psychology, Vol. III, April 1923, p. 95.. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 5:89-90.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: General: Alice G. Ikin. The Ontogenesis of Introvert and Extrovert Tendencies. British Journal of Medical Psychology, Vol. III, April 1923, p. 95.

(1924). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 5:89-90

General: Alice G. Ikin. The Ontogenesis of Introvert and Extrovert Tendencies. British Journal of Medical Psychology, Vol. III, April 1923, p. 95.

Robert M. Riggall

Human civilization tends to increase individual powers of subsistence with relatively small fertility: in other words there is a predominance of ego over sex instincts, or, according to Jung, introversion rather than extroversion. In order to avoid the sacrifice of the race to the individual, nature appears to have supplied man with a stronger sex instinct than required for reproduction. Freud states that the conflict resulting from this is between ego and sex instincts, and Jung believes that it is between introvert and extrovert reactions. There is more in common between the views of Jung and Freud, or the theory of the libido as an essentially psychic force, than the difference in terminology would lead one to expect. Jung does not admit that desexualized primal libido can ever be restored to its original function. Freud and Jung both admit a sexual force capable of sublimation or desexualization, and a force which is innately

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desexualized, both believing that they are not mutually convertible forces. Jung should therefore refrain from tracing the origin of both of them to one of them. Freud and Jung both believe that evolution is the history of conflict between the non-sexual individualizing derivative and the sexual undifferentiated reproductive force, repetition of this conflict occurring in the individual. The authoress believes that since neither the individual nor the race is to be sacrificed, the compromise must be a new product differing from but including egoism and sexuality. She believes this product to be altruism, and in this respect differs from Freud, who considers that the libido can never be altruistic. She thinks that the term altruism should be reserved for the higher sublimation of both interest and libido, and states that Freud has ignored the fact that libido is responsible for race preservation interests when he states that object interest is the only altruism. She amplifies the definition of sublimation which according to her view should mean 'the deflection of the energy motivating any instinct into social instead of egoistic channels'.

Neither the school of Freud nor Jung appears to recognize the complementary nature of their views concerning the conflict between narcissistic and object libido. Introvert-extrovert conflict appears to be that existing between narcissistic and object libido. The repressing force appears to be narcissistic libido focussed on the ego-ideal. The force of conscience is derived from libido embodied in the ego-ideal, which ideal is a social product. Freud and Adler fail to see that both egoistic interest and libido are repressed as antagonistic to an ego-ideal, their cases supporting their respective views. The authoress concludes by referring to her own analysis, and states in a foot-note that she suffered from dissociations of personality. She discovered that in the breaking down of transference the ideal of the object was identified with the self. She passed through a stage of the formation of an idealized image of the object, the libido being detached from the object to the ideal, and, secondly, identification of the ideal with the self.

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Article Citation

Riggall, R.M. (1924). General. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 5:89-90

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