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Riggall, R.M. (1926). Clinical: E. Miller. The Relationships of the Neuroses. Psyche, 1925, Vol. V, p. 344.. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 7:252-253.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Clinical: E. Miller. The Relationships of the Neuroses. Psyche, 1925, Vol. V, p. 344.

(1926). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 7:252-253

Clinical: E. Miller. The Relationships of the Neuroses. Psyche, 1925, Vol. V, p. 344.

Robert M. Riggall

The author presents a classification by means of a genealogy. In man the conflict of phylogeny and ontogeny becomes proportionately more acute. A genealogical system of classification should indioate the causal factors underlying the syndrome. A neurosis is defined as a disturbance of the harmonious relationship existing between psychological and neurological processes. Basing his remarks on Freud's theory of life and death instincts, the author thinks that ego instincts tend to produce an introverted type of reaction, while sex instincts, owing to their centrifugal action, produce extroversion. Emotional activity is thus either dissipated or held within the system. The normally equilibrated person reacts in both ways, but accentuation early in life of the sexual or ego instincts produces extroversion or introversion. Having discussed the different reactions of these types to the psycho-galvanometer the author ventures into the field of endocrinology, and suggests that in the anxiety states there is over-activity of the suprarenals and thyroid, while in the feeble-minded there is probably a deficiency. He thinks that it may be possible to establish more or less definite endocrine patterns. Tentatively discussing anthropological relationships to the two distinct types it is suggested that striking similarities between primitive types and certain degenerate types of the present time may in the future lead to some relationship on which classes can be based. In drawing his genealogical tree, Miller places introversion on the left arm and traces phobias, obsessions and hysterical conversions to states of diffuse anxiety. The paranoia group is also descended from these anxiety states. Paranoia is placed on the introvert side because it is a defence psychosis with an outstanding ego-striving thwarted by some early sexual struggle for extroversion which has failed. On the right arm we find extroversion: diffuse hysteria leading to anxiety hysteria, hysterical conversion and manic depression. Basing his remarks on Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle, it is suggested that in hysterical dissociation there may be a partial death due to the withdrawal of the ego from its body as

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object of love. This bifurcation of the two reaction types is an attempt to explain the major conflict of sex versus ego.

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Article Citation

Riggall, R.M. (1926). Clinical. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 7:252-253

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