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After you perform a search, you can sort the articles by Year. This will rearrange the results of your search chronologically, displaying the earliest published articles first. This feature is useful to trace the development of a specific psychoanalytic concept through time.

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(1940). Children: John Bowlby. Substitute Homes.' Mother and Child, April, 1939, pp. 3–7.. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 21:92-93.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Children: John Bowlby. Substitute Homes.' Mother and Child, April, 1939, pp. 3–7.

(1940). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 21:92-93

Children: John Bowlby. Substitute Homes.' Mother and Child, April, 1939, pp. 3–7.

This paper, originally read at the Child Guidance Conference, 1939, is a psychological examination of the placement of children in foster homes, schools or institutions. It is emphasized that to take a child from its own home is a major psychological operation and not to be undertaken lightly. The emotional importance of the child's own home is discussed and

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examples given of the disastrous effect on children under three of being removed from their mother to a foster mother. Practical conclusions derived from Child Guidance experience are: (1) That no small child should be placed away from his parents unless the mother has died or is actively cruel. (2) That, if a child has to be placed, the greatest care should be taken to see that the placement is final. (3) That in institutions an adult looking after children should not be changed. The psychological problems met with in foster homes are then discussed under (a) the foster parents' emotional difficulties, and (b) the foster child's emotional difficulties. It is pointed out that the majority of foster children, especially if small, are in a very disturbed emotional condition which needs understanding, if it is not to become chronic. No deep study of the psycho-pathology involved is attempted.

Author's Abstract.

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Article Citation

(1940). Children. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 21:92-93

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