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Macdonald, R.A. (1940). General: 'Frustration as an Experimental Problem.' Symposium under the Chairmanship of Dr. Saul Rosenzweig. Character and Personality, 1938, Vol. VII, No. 2, pp. 126–160.. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 21:343-344.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: General: 'Frustration as an Experimental Problem.' Symposium under the Chairmanship of Dr. Saul Rosenzweig. Character and Personality, 1938, Vol. VII, No. 2, pp. 126–160.

(1940). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 21:343-344

General: 'Frustration as an Experimental Problem.' Symposium under the Chairmanship of Dr. Saul Rosenzweig. Character and Personality, 1938, Vol. VII, No. 2, pp. 126–160.

R. A. Macdonald

After a short introduction on the definition of and attitudes to frustration, four short papers are presented. The first deals with research implications of the concept of frustration in relation to social and educational problems, and stresses the positive as well as the negative results of frustration. A list of ten important questions in understanding the concept are postulated, and in the discussion of these, Freud is largely quoted. Subsequently twelve more questions on the practical applications of essential and unessential frustrations are put forward and a plea made for earnest investigation of them. The next three contributions give experiments in artificially imposed frustrations, on chimpanzees, sheep and children respectively, with conclusions drawn from them regarding the results of varying amounts, types and durations of frustrations, in terms of increased cognitive capacity, neurotic breakdown, regression, etc.

Dr. Rosenzweig adds a further paper to complete the symposium. He discusses types of frustrating situations, in terms of privation, deprivation and conflict. He introduces the concept 'Frustration Tolerance', and gives examples of how this may be raised or lowered, instancing, among other methods of raising it, that of the psycho-analytic situation. He enumerates varieties of reaction to frustration in the following terms: adequate–inadequate, direct–indirect, defensive–preservative, specific-non-specific, and ends by expressing the hope that the formulation of

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frustration may make for greater co-operation between psychological, especially psycho-analytical, principles and experimental methods, to the mutual enrichment of each.

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Article Citation

Macdonald, R.A. (1940). General. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 21:343-344

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