Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To see papers related to the one you are viewing…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When there are articles or videos related to the one you are viewing, you will see a related papers icon next to the title, like this: RelatedPapers32Final3For example:


Click on it and you will see a bibliographic list of papers that are related (including the current one). Related papers may be papers which are commentaries, responses to commentaries, erratum, and videos discussing the paper. Since they are not part of the original source material, they are added by PEP editorial staff, and may not be marked as such in every possible case.


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Grinker, R.R. (1957). On Identification. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 38:379-390.

(1957). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 38:379-390

On Identification

Roy R. Grinker, M.D.


The subject of identification is almost coextensive with the entire field of psychodynamics, for it involves consideration of the processes of instinctual drives, the mechanisms of early socialization, and the intra-psychic and interpersonal behaviour and conflicts of the human being. Previous consideration of the participation of early physiological patterns in psychological development (12) naturally led me to the question: How do the periodic cycles of infantile metabolism influence developing ego patterns, and how do these obtain their content from relationships with representatives of the external world? The subject of identification, therefore, becomes an extension of biological theory. On the other hand, identifications develop from transactions between the maturing child and other persons transmitting the symbol systems of societies and cultures; and personality interacts with other personalities to form social and cultural systems. Therefore, identifications constitute theoretical bridges between biology and personality, and between personalities and social groups.

Recently, social psychiatrists and sociologists have been allocating bridging functions to social roles as systems of communications and expectations in transactions among human beings (Spiegel, 20). They constitute a description of behaviour gross enough to be defined through a period of time, but limited to what may be available or permitted in a specific social system. As communications occupying varying time spans, they are derived from unconscious attitudes based on past learning and are governed by motivations which have their origin in a multiplicity of internal identifications that may never, or at least not directly, be revealed in behaviour.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.