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Tip: Understanding Rank

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

When you do a search, you can sort the results bibliographically alphabetical or by “rank”. What is Rank?

Rank refers to the search engine’s “best guess” as to the relevance of the result to the search you specified. The exact method of ranking used varies a bit depending on the search. In its most basic level, when you specify a single search term, rank looks at the density of the matches for the word in the document, and how close to the beginning of the document they appear as a measure of importance to the paper’s topic. The documents with the most matches and where the term is deemed to have the most importance, have the highest “relevance” and are ranked first (presented first).

When you specify more than one term to appear anywhere in the article, the method is similar, but the search engine looks at how many of those terms appear, and how close together they appear, how close to the beginning of the document, and can even take into account the relative rarity of the search terms and their density in the retrieved file, where infrequent terms count more heavily than common terms.

To see a simple example of this, search for the words (not the phrase, so no quotes):

unconscious communications

Look at the density of matches in each document on the first page of the hits. Then go to the last page of matched documents, and observe the density of matches within the documents.

A more complex search illustrates this nicely with a single page and only 15 matches:

counter*tr* w/25 “liv* out” w/25 enact*

There are a lot of word forms and variants of the words (due to the * wildcards) above that can match, but the proximity (w/25) clause limits the potential for matching. What’s interesting here though is how easily you can see the match density decrease as you view down the short list.

The end result of selecting order by rank is that the search engine’s best “guess” as to which articles are more relevant appear higher on the list than less relevant articles.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Löfgren, L.B. (1964). Excitation, Anxiety, Affect—Some Tentative Reformulations. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 45:280-285.

(1964). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 45:280-285

Excitation, Anxiety, Affect—Some Tentative Reformulations

L. Börje Löfgren

In many empirical sciences two principal parts can be recognized. One part consists of a body of statements describing the observed phenomena, the descriptions that lend themselves to empirical validation. The interconnexions in this matrix of statements are studied in something that is called a theoretical superstructure. Here the statements represent an outflow of the investigator's scientific imagination and are not subject to empirical investigations. They form anyhow an important part of what we feel to be our knowledge of the world. In advanced sciences quite often many different superstructures are applied to more or less similar descriptions, for instance in physics. This is generally regarded as an advantage. Psychoanalysis also has at least two superstructures designed to explain, causally connect, and predict various descriptions. One of these superstructures forms part of psycho-analytic psychology proper. The other is called psychoanalytic metapsychology (see Rapaport and Gill, 1959). The two superstructures are essentially parallel: they do not contradict each other, but we get a feeling of increased knowledge when we have been able to apply both of them adequately to a matrix of descriptions.

The present-day superstructures in psychoanalysis that are used to explain the descriptions of affects and anxiety can be pieced together from various authors (see Fenichel, 1939), (1941), (1945), (Freud, 1905), (1915–17), (1920), (1923), (1926), 1952; (Hartmann, 1939), (1950), (1952), (1955); (Hartmann, Kris, and Loewenstein, 1946), (1949), (Kris, 1938); (Rapaport, 1953), (1960); (Schur, 1953), (1958) and will here be presented in a very simplified form.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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