Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To sort articles by Rank…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

You can specify Rank as the sort order when searching (it’s the default) which will put the articles which best matched your search on the top, and the complete results in descending relevance to your search.    This feature is useful for finding the most important articles on a specific topic.

You can also change the sort order of results by selecting rank at the top of the search results pane after you perform a search.  Note that rank order after a search only ranks up to 1000 maximum results that were returned; specifying rank in the search dialog ranks all possibilities before choosing the final 1000 (or less) to return.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Kaplan, S.M. Whitman, R.M. (1965). The Negative Ego-Ideal. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 46:183-187.

(1965). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 46:183-187

The Negative Ego-Ideal

Stanley M. Kaplan and Roy M. Whitman


Shame has been described as occurring when an individual fails to live up to a certain standard of behaviour, the positive ego-ideal. The ego-ideal's development and ultimate form reflect the adoption of the aspirations and goals of the parents and the culture particularly during childhood.

We suggest there may be value, additionally, in delineating another intrapsychic structure, which also deals with shame but of the intensity described by the terms humiliation and mortification. This structure, the negative ego-ideal, can be described as the internalized negative standards of the parents and the culture. Intense shame, humiliation and mortification occur when the individual behaves or feels about himself in a way which approximates the negative ego-ideal.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2019, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.