Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from  You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon  Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Hayman, A. (1965). Verbalization and Identity. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 46:455-466.

(1965). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 46:455-466

Verbalization and Identity

Anne Hayman


Interest in the problem of identity is a recent development in psycho-analytic thinking, with the concept of 'the self' as subject being differentiated from the concept of ego as the organizing functional structure of the personality. There has been much discussion about both the nature and the development of this psychic instance, with varying emphases on the primal significance of the development of the recognition and distinction between self and not-self, the later enlargement of this conception into the distinction between self and object representation, further distinctions between identity, sense or feeling of identity or self, self-cognizance, the relations between self-representation and ideal self, the defensive creation of a 'false-self', and many other contributions.

There are differing views both as to the timing of the development of the sense of personal identity, and as to whether it represents a fourth structural entity within the personality on a par with id, ego, and superego. For example, Eissler (1958b) and Erikson (1959) feel that it is a structure mainly synthesized towards the end of adolescence as the result of re-integration of childhood identifications arising from re-experienced oedipal and pre-oedipal conflicts in the setting of mature genitality, changed superego rulings, increased ego talents, and within the setting of new social expectations and opportunities. Other writers, while acknowledging the re-integration and new synthesis of identifications, and emergence of life role, at this stage remain more convinced of the classical view that psychic structuralization is completed with the passing of the Oedipus complex.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2019, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.