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Calef, V., Weinshel, E.M. (1984). Anxiety and the Restitutional Function of Homosexual Cruising. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 65:45-53.

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(1984). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 65:45-53

Anxiety and the Restitutional Function of Homosexual Cruising

Victor Calef and Edward M. Weinshel Author Information

Recent clinical experience has: (1) confirmed the claim of the central role of aggression in the psychopathology of male homosexuality; (2) provided a basis for understanding the phenomenon of homosexual 'cruising'; and (3) suggested a point of departure for a further exploration of the relations between the sexual and aggressive impulses on the one hand and guilt and anxiety on the other. Whether either of the affects are linked exclusively to one or the other impulse, whether both impulses are linked to both affects, has been the subject of insufficient attention though recurrent efforts have been directed to resolving some of the problems involved from slightly different perspectives. Sandler (1960), Schafer (1960), Reich, A. (1960), Sharpe (1930), Glover (1931), for example, explore superego development and functions (including sublimations). Those studies have at their core similar, if not identical, questions to ours, while different though mutually related conclusions are derived.

Freud (1926) specifically linked anxiety with repression, i.e. anxiety instigated repression and symptom formation. Though the precursor of the superego, social anxiety, was experienced as a sense of guilt, its later development (an inner and internalized voice) served to maintain repression but did not initiate it. In such formulations the representations of libido were subject to repression while little was said of the fate of aggression. The last instinct theory conceptualized conflict

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