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Gibeault, A. (1992). Marc, or the Soldier's Journey. The Elaboration of Passivity as a Factor of Change. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 73:227-236.

(1992). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 73:227-236

Marc, or the Soldier's Journey. The Elaboration of Passivity as a Factor of Change

Alain Gibeault

The evaluation of change in the treatment necessarily depends on how the aim of the analytical process is defined. Freud's own views on this subject evolved during the course of his career: in the context of the first model of the mind, it was a matter of making the unconscious conscious, but, as we know, he used different terms once the second model of the mind had been established: 'Where id was, there ego shall be' (Freud, 1933p. 80). An important element in both cases is the idea of a circulation between the psychical systems, but we also know that this shift in the Freudian theory followed in particular from the discovery of unconscious resistances of the ego to change, of resistances 'not only to the making conscious of contents of the id, but also to the analysis as a whole, and thus to recovery' (Freud 1937ap. 239).

Now interpretation acquires its mutative value only because it takes place in a formal setting which, by virtue of the suspension of visual perception and motor activity, creates the conditions for organization of the transference in its aspect as repetition of the past. Freud (1916–17) described the temporal regression thereby induced from three points of view, in relation to the object, to libido and to narcissism (pp. 339–57), and this regression has been likened to that occurring in dreams: the hallucinatory dimension of dreams was, of course, the background to the very foundation of psychoanalytic theory, namely the infant's original experience of satisfaction at the breast.

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