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Michels, R. (1994). Validation in the Clinical Process. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 75:1133-1140.

(1994). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 75:1133-1140

Validation in the Clinical Process

Robert Michels


Validation has several meanings in psychoanalysis. The scientific validation of psychoanalytic theories or of clinical effectiveness can be contrasted with validation in the clinical process. Originally, this referred to the external confirmation of specific memories or reconstructions. Recently, interest has shifted to the impact of the analyst's interventions on the analytic process. The analyst's quest for validation may lead to overemphasis on specific features of the analytic data, or on episodes of invalidation. The analyst's response to the latter is an important aspect of psychoanalytic technique.

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