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The Information icon (an i in a circle) will give you valuable information about PEP Web data and features. You can find it besides a PEP Web feature and the author’s name in every journal article. Simply move the mouse pointer over the icon and click on it for the information to appear.

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Pally, R. (2007). The Predicting Brain: Unconscious Repetition, Conscious Reflection and Therapeutic Change. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 88(4):861-881.

(2007). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 88(4):861-881

The Predicting Brain: Unconscious Repetition, Conscious Reflection and Therapeutic Change

Regina Pally

Neuroscience indicates that ‘repetition’ is fundamental to brain function. The brain non-consciously predicts what is most likely to happen and sets in motion perceptions, emotions, behaviors and interpersonal responses best adapted to what is expected— before events occur. Predictions enable individuals to be ready ‘ahead of time’ so reactions occur rapidly and smoothly when events occur. The brain uses past learning as the guide for what to expect in the future. Because of prediction, present experience and responses are shaped by the past. Predictions from early life can be deeply encoded and enduring. Predictions based on the past allow for more efficient brain function in the present, but can lead to mistakes. When what is predicted does not occur, consciousness can be engaged to monitor and correct the situation. But if a perception or emotion seems reasonable for the situation, a person might not notice an error, and a maladaptive ‘repetition’ may remain unchanged. The author discusses how predictions contribute to psychological defenses and transference repetition, and how conscious self-reflection facilitates therapeutic change. The neuroscience of prediction indicates why, in certain cases, active engagement by the analyst may be necessary. The author makes the argument for use of a ‘neuroscience interpretation’.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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