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Gilman, S.L. (2009). Psychoanalysis in the University: The Clinical Dimension. Int. J. Psycho-Anal., 90(5):1103-1105.

(2009). International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 90(5):1103-1105

Psychoanalysis in the University: The Clinical Dimension

Sander L. Gilman

After the Ninth Psycho-Analytical Congress at the beginning of September 1925 at Bad Homburg the following claim was made by Max Eitingon, who had created the first functioning training institute: that psychoanalysis had to develop:

that which Freud has created, to guard it from a premature fusion and so-called synthesis with other fields of thought and different methods of investigation and work, and ever to give clear definition to that which is specifically our own. Now the fate of our work is in the hands of our successors, and it is to them more and more that we must turn our attention. We must endeavour to meet this our most pressing need by making suitable provision.

(IPA, 1926, p. 130)

The anxiety about intellectual synthesis was indeed a demand for psychoanalysis to avoid the strains of the Humboldtian university created not only to research and teach but also to test ideas across and within disciplines. Remain separate and remain pure, said Eitingon. His talk was heralded with a powerful round of applause and after a debate of over three hours the proposal to limit training to the institutes was accepted.

It was Hermann Nunberg of Budapest, who had first proposed such a training institute at the Fifth Psycho-Analytical Congress of 1918. But it was in Berlin, following the establishment of the free clinic that the model for psychoanalytic training was formally developed. It was the training committee of the International Psychoanalytic Association and Karen Horney as the first training director of the Berlin Psychoanalytic Institute that shaped the analytic institute, as we now know it.

Psychoanalytic Institutes, with required formal training analysis, were created in Berlin, then Vienna, and then Budapest. All were also associated with the free clinics - ambulatoria - established to make psychoanalysis available to the greater public and provide a training platform for analysts (Danto, 2005). Soon thereafter the institutes in London, Frankfurt-am-Main and New York were created. In Vienna as Helene Deutsch noted in 1932:

a large number of eager young people - physicians and teachers - can only be accepted on a ‘waiting-list’ because the financial limitations of our Institute, in spite of the sacrifices of the workers there, do not make it possible to provide training for all those who desire this.

(Deutsch, 1932, p.

[This is a summary excerpt from the full text of the journal article. The full text of the document is available to journal subscribers on the publisher's website here.]

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