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Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and Loss: Volume I: Attachment. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 79:1-401. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

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(1969). The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 79:1-401. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

Attachment and Loss: Volume I: Attachment

John Bowlby

Mother and child of the Matto Grosso, Amazon basin

- iii -

Contents

Preface xi
Acknowledgements xvii
PART I: THE TASK
1 Point of View 3
  Some characteristics of the present approach 5
  Theories of motivation 13
  Note on the concept of feedback in Freud's theorising 22
2 Observations to be Explained 24
PART II: INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOUR
3 Instinctive Behaviour: An Alternative Model 37
  Introduction 37
  Some principles of control systems 41
  Control systems and instinctive behaviour 44
  Adaptation: system and environment 50
  Note on literature 56
4 Man's Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness 58
5 Behavioural Systems Mediating Instinctive Behaviour 65
  Types of behavioural system 65
  Co-ordination of behavioural systems 74
  Higher processes of integration and control 80
6 Causation of Instinctive Behaviour 85
  Activation and termination of behavioural systems 85
  Incompatible behavioural systems: results of simultaneous activation 97
  Sensory input and its transformation 102
7 Appraising and Selecting: Feeling and Emotion 104
  Introduction 104
  Philosophical problems 106
  Processes that are felt 109
- vii -

  Is feeling or emotion causative of behaviour? 116
  The communicative role of feeling and emotion 120
8 Function of Instinctive Behaviour 124
  Functions of behavioural systems and other consequences of their activity 124
  Problems of terminology 133
9 Changes in Behaviour during the Life-cycle 141
10 10 Ontogeny of Instinctive Behaviour 145
  Changes that occur during the ontogeny of behavioural systems 145
  Restriction of range of effective stimuli 147
  Elaboration of primitive behavioural systems and their super-session by sophisticated systems 152
  Integration of behavioural systems into functional wholes 157
  Sensitive periods of development 161
  Imprinting 166
  Comparison of old and new theories of instinctive behaviour 172
PART III: ATTACHMENT BEHAVIOUR
11 The Child's Tie to his Mother: Attachment Behaviour 177
  Alternative theories 177
  Attachment behaviour and its place in nature 180
  Attachment behaviour in sub-human primates 184
  Attachment behaviour in man 198
12 Nature and Function of Attachment Behaviour 210
  The theory of secondary drive: origin and present status 210
  The question of imprinting 220
  Function of attachment behaviour 223
  A note on terminology: ‘dependence’ 228
  Attachment and other systems of social behaviour 230
13 A Control Systems Approach to Attachment Behaviour 235
  Introduction 235
  The roles of child and of mother in mother-child interaction 236
  Forms of behaviour mediating attachment and their organisation 244
  Behaviour typical of two-year-olds in different situations 252
  Activation and termination of systems mediating attachment behaviour 257

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