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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Eckardt, M. (1977). Eckardt's Reply to Shainess and Arieti. J. Amer. Acad. Psychoanal., 5(4):527-528.

(1977). Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 5(4):527-528

Eckardt's Reply to Shainess and Arieti Related Papers

Marianne Eckardt

I appreciate Shainess's differentiation between “psychoanalyzing” and “analyzing.” I, too, believe that the word “psychoanalyzing” in any meaningful usage refers to the activity of exchange between two living beings. “Analyzing” is a broader term and can refer to examination of many aspects of a literary work, such as language, form, theme, and so on. Bonime and I, however, were discussing only the fallacies of subjecting literary characters to psychoanalytic study.

I also appreciate Shainess's reference to the article by Rose Spiegel, “Psychoanalysis and the Arts.” May I quote:

In literature we seek reflections and expressions of life, truth presented not in scientific symbolism but in polarity of images and their evocations. We seek an emotive experience … meaning and expression of values… a replenishment for our psyches…” (italics mine).

Spiegel's words convey what I emphasized in my part of the paper —the subjective enrichment we receive from literature.

The subjective nature of our experience with literature was made particularly vivid by the late Lionel Trilling (quoted in a N. Y.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

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