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Sandler, A. (1985). On Interpretation and Holding. J. Child Psychother., 11(1):3-15.

(1985). Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 11(1):3-15

On Interpretation and Holding

Anne-Marie Sandler

When I was approached to give this paper as a contribution to a conference entitled “Holding or Interpretation” I was not only honoured by the invitation but also excited by the challenge of the topic to be discussed. When I sat down to write the paper, however, I realised that most people, including myself, assume that they possess a relatively clear and simple idea of what is meant by “holding”. But when one does more than scratch the surface, it becomes clear that “holding” belongs to that class of concepts which are “elastic”, which change their meaning according to the context in which they are employed (J. Sandler, 1983). And certainly the concept as used in the literature covers a wide spectrum of meanings.

There is little doubt that the analytic situation, as developed by Freud, with its constant setting, its regular hours, its somewhat ritualised external trappings, provides the patient with a feeling of safety, a sense of being held. Winnicott (1965) was very aware of the relevance of the analytic setting to the patient, and gave special importance to it. For some particularly disturbed patients, he would arrange the cushions on the couch in a special way, so that they would find the cushions placed in the way they preferred. As we all know, Winnicott introduced the term “holding environment” as a metaphor for certain aspects of the analytic situation and the analytic process. The term derives from the maternal

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