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Zoja, L., Dr (1987). Analytical Psychology and the Metapsychology of Feelings: Possible connections between Jung and Melanie Klein. J. Anal. Psychol., 32:47-55.

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(1987). Journal of Analytical Psychology, 32(1):47-55

Analytical Psychology and the Metapsychology of Feelings: Possible connections between Jung and Melanie Klein

Luigi Zoja, Dr

The Concepts of Melanie Klein, in their individual and clinical application, have already been linked—primarily by the London School—to those of Jung, and this raises an important question: could an amplification of analytical psychology by reference to Klein be equally useful in the study of the collective psyche, and what could such an amplification be called? Possible connections are certainly not to be looked for in those reflections on the Zeitgeist frequent in Jung but almost absent in Klein, but four features of the line of thought she pursued in her differentiation from Freud may be found to be compatible with Jung's ideas.

First, there are certain analogies between Klein's concept of position and Jung's concept of archetypal constellation; second, like Jung, Klein sought to go beyond Freud's psychobiological concept of developmental phases named after parts of the body (oral, anal and so forth) in order to reach a purely psychodynamic conception; third, Klein's individual factors belong to stages much earlier than those studied by Freud, and considered to be much less affected by culture and environment, and as arising not from external stimuli but from a predisposition to specific psychic experiences as do archetypal demands; fourth, and linked to my second point, Klein gradually became concerned more with affective states than with instincts or drives.

I want first to look at and amplify certain collective problems from a Kleinian point of view. During the past decade the majority of the

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