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Kagan, J. (1997). In the Beginning: The Contribution of Temperament to Personality Development. Mod. Psychoanal., 22(2):145-155.

(1997). Modern Psychoanalysis, 22(2):145-155

In the Beginning: The Contribution of Temperament to Personality Development

Jerome Kagan, Ph.D.

This paper summarizes developmental research on two temperamental types: inhibited and uninhibited measured in terms of reactivity to stimulation. The research indicates that a biological basis exists for these two temperamental types and that these traits remain stable during the childhood years. Though there is a biological foundation to temperament, environmental factors do exert influence.

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