Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Panksepp, J. (2005). Commentary on “Integrating the Psychoanalytic and Neurobiological Views of Panic Disorder”. Neuropsychoanalysis, 7(2):145-150.

(2005). Neuropsychoanalysis, 7(2):145-150

Commentary on “Integrating the Psychoanalytic and Neurobiological Views of Panic Disorder” Related Papers

Jaak Panksepp

Psychobiological Theories of Panic Attacks and Panic Disorders

Alexander, Feigelson, & Gorman entertain a fear-conditioning model of panic disorders that seeks to integrate first-person experiential views and third-person neuroscientific approaches in a seamless synthesis. It is not yet clear to me what specific testable hypotheses arise from their perspective. May I request the authors to advance a few? For my part I shall simply supplement their coverage with a more comprehensive summary of current neuroscientific possibilities for understanding panic attacks.

Perhaps a clearer distinction between panic attacks and panic disorders will be critical for how well Gorman, Kent, Sullivan, and Coplan's (2000) amygdala-based fear system model of panic will hold up to empirical scrutiny. At this point, a critical issue is to clarify how the precipitous affective surges of panic emerge from brain dynamics, along with an explicit recognition that the affective sources of acute panic attacks may be quite different from the anticipatory “signal anxiety” that eventually culminates in the chronic panic syndrome.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2019, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.