Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
:
Login
Tip: To zoom in or out on PEP-Web…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

Are you having difficulty reading an article due its font size?  In order to make the content on PEP-Web larger (zoom in), press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the plus sign (+).  Press Ctrl (on Windows) or ⌘Command (on the Mac) and the minus sign (-) to make the content smaller (zoom out).   To go back to 100% size (normal size), press Ctrl (⌘Command  on the Mac) + 0 (the number 0).

Another way on Windows: Hold the Ctrl key and scroll the mouse wheel up or down to zoom in and out (respectively) of the webpage. Laptop users may use two fingers and separate them or bring them together while pressing the mouse track pad.

Safari users: You can also improve the readability of you browser when using Safari, with the Reader Mode: Go to PEP-Web. Right-click the URL box and select Settings for This Website, or go to Safari > Settings for This Website. A large pop-up will appear underneath the URL box. Look for the header that reads, “When visiting this website.” If you want Reader mode to always work on this site, check the box for “Use Reader when available.”

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Bak, R.C. (1946). Masochism in Paranoia. Psychoanal Q., 15:285-301.

(1946). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 15:285-301

Masochism in Paranoia

Robert C. Bak, M.D.

Until the works of Ferenczi (1) and Freud gave us essential insight into paranoia, Kraepelin's point of view dominated. Kraepelin gave the classic description, delineating the symptom complex, and the bulk of the ensuing research attempted to isolate paranoia as a disease entity. With the separation of the paraphrenias from dementia præcox, the sole two remaining clinical forms of sensitive paranoia were the paranoia of jealousy and litigious paranoia. Most investigators held that the psychosis was characterogenic, originating in a specific paranoid constitution, which manifested itself in certain personality traits. The psychosis was supposed to develop under the influence of certain experiences as an exaggeration of the underlying constitution. Among the precipitating experiences were particularly emphasized injuries to the ego, such as slights, frustrated ambitions, injustices.

Freud (2) emerged with his brilliant genetic theory of paranoia, demonstrated by means of Schreber's autobiography. Essentially this theory states that in paranoia the ego sets up defenses against homosexuality, from which there results a regression from sublimated homosexuality to narcissism. The libido is withdrawn from the loved person, the homosexual trend ('I love him') is denied and turned into its opposite ('I hate him'), and the hatred is then projected ('because he persecutes me'). Projection undoes the withdrawal. The subsequent formation of delusions is a work of reconstruction, which carries the libido back to the object, but with a negative prefix. This ingenious theory seemed applicable to the various clinical forms of paranoia.

Clinical psychiatry took over elements of Freud's theory but in an attenuated form.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2019, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.