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PEP-Easy Tip: To save PEP-Easy to the home screen

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

To start PEP-Easy without first opening your browser–just as you would start a mobile app, you can save a shortcut to your home screen.

First, in Chrome or Safari, depending on your platform, open PEP-Easy from You want to be on the default start screen, so you have a clean workspace.

Then, depending on your mobile device…follow the instructions below:


  1. Tap on the share icon Action navigation bar and tab bar icon
  2. In the bottom list, tap on ‘Add to home screen’
  3. In the “Add to Home” confirmation “bubble”, tap “Add”

On Android:

  1. Tap on the Chrome menu (Vertical Ellipses)
  2. Select “Add to Home Screen” from the menu


For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

Bak, R.C. (1946). Masochism in Paranoia. Psychoanal Q., 15:285-301.

(1946). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 15:285-301

Masochism in Paranoia

Robert C. Bak, M.D.

Until the works of Ferenczi (1) and Freud gave us essential insight into paranoia, Kraepelin's point of view dominated. Kraepelin gave the classic description, delineating the symptom complex, and the bulk of the ensuing research attempted to isolate paranoia as a disease entity. With the separation of the paraphrenias from dementia præcox, the sole two remaining clinical forms of sensitive paranoia were the paranoia of jealousy and litigious paranoia. Most investigators held that the psychosis was characterogenic, originating in a specific paranoid constitution, which manifested itself in certain personality traits. The psychosis was supposed to develop under the influence of certain experiences as an exaggeration of the underlying constitution. Among the precipitating experiences were particularly emphasized injuries to the ego, such as slights, frustrated ambitions, injustices.

Freud (2) emerged with his brilliant genetic theory of paranoia, demonstrated by means of Schreber's autobiography. Essentially this theory states that in paranoia the ego sets up defenses against homosexuality, from which there results a regression from sublimated homosexuality to narcissism. The libido is withdrawn from the loved person, the homosexual trend ('I love him') is denied and turned into its opposite ('I hate him'), and the hatred is then projected ('because he persecutes me'). Projection undoes the withdrawal. The subsequent formation of delusions is a work of reconstruction, which carries the libido back to the object, but with a negative prefix. This ingenious theory seemed applicable to the various clinical forms of paranoia.

Clinical psychiatry took over elements of Freud's theory but in an attenuated form.

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