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(1956). Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. XVIII, 1954. Psychoanal Q., 25:116-117.

(1956). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 25:116-117

Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. XVIII, 1954

Psychotherapy—A Review and an Integration. Jules H. Masserman. Pp. 162-170.

Animal experimentation demonstrated that 'neuroses' could be induced in dogs by subjecting them to adaptational stresses beyond their integrative capacities, and Pavlov advocated the use of bromides as the sole therapy for such states. However, other methods were found to ameliorate the neurosis: 1, Change of milieu and rest, which reduced anxiety at least until return to the laboratory. 2, Forced satiation of a need that conflict had prevented from being satisfied. 3, Forced solution, bringing the animal near to food until it ate, like pushing a boy who is afraid of water into a shallow pool. 4, Pairing the phobic animal with a normal one, leading to a diminution of neurotic patterns. 5, Reeducation by a trusted individual whom the animal had looked to earlier for protection and care. During this 'rehabilitation' the animal not only re-explores and resolves its motivational conflicts, but also masters and dissipates the symbolic generalizations that spring from this nuclear complex—the paradigm for much psychotherapy. 6, Use of drugs that disorganize complex behavior patterns and leave simple ones intact.

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