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Rahman, L. (1956). Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. XIX, 1955: A Method of Teaching Psychotherapy. Otto Fleischmann. Pp. 160-172.. Psychoanal Q., 25:618-619.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. XIX, 1955: A Method of Teaching Psychotherapy. Otto Fleischmann. Pp. 160-172.

(1956). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 25:618-619

Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. XIX, 1955: A Method of Teaching Psychotherapy. Otto Fleischmann. Pp. 160-172.

Lincoln Rahman

Freud held that the demonstration of patients, so customary in medicine, could be used in psychiatry but was not possible in teaching psychoanalysis. At the Menninger Clinic, a room with one-way vision was used for demonstration of treatment because psychotherapy is more flexible than psychoanalysis and the ego of the patient is strong enough to accept being observed. The patient's reactions could be discussed as manifestations of resistance and transference.

At the start, the patient waited in the hallway so as to see the doctors who went into the observation room. During three and a half years of treatment, the observers were included in the transference and became part of it. It almost seemed that the observers did not influence the course of therapy. The knowledge that the therapist was a senior therapist and that the treatment was being used for teaching has neither given narcissistic gratification to the patient nor increased her expectations of protection and cure by the therapist. The patient's reaction

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to the observers varied with changing transference. The therapist liked the experiment; in retrospect he thinks that without the observers he would have tried more actively to get the patient to talk about difficult matters but that because of the observers his interpretations of the unconscious were more carefully timed and formulated. He was most aware of the observers at the start and termination of the treatment, when the transference was being established and resolved. When the students in discussions after treatment sessions criticized the therapist and he felt defensive, control of this defensiveness was for him a unique experience in self-analysis. The observers all felt they had learned a great deal.

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Article Citation

Rahman, L. (1956). Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. XIX, 1955. Psychoanal. Q., 25:618-619

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