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Biernoff, J. (1956). Psychiatric Quarterly. XXIX, 1955: Abnormalities of the Gaze—A Classification. Morris D. Riemer. Pp. 659-672.. Psychoanal Q., 25:619-620.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Psychiatric Quarterly. XXIX, 1955: Abnormalities of the Gaze—A Classification. Morris D. Riemer. Pp. 659-672.

(1956). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 25:619-620

Psychiatric Quarterly. XXIX, 1955: Abnormalities of the Gaze—A Classification. Morris D. Riemer. Pp. 659-672.

Joseph Biernoff

Riemer discusses the usefulness of the gaze in therapy when the psychiatrist sits opposite the patient. He urges that the couch be abandoned because it does not permit gazing. The kindly, accepting gaze of the therapist is especially helpful for the patient with a weak ego. Abnormalities of the gaze are classified as,

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1, excessive blinking; 2, depressed look; 3, dramatic gaze; 4, guarded look; 5, absent gaze; and 6, averted look. The diagnostic, prognostic, and dynamic meanings of these gazes are discussed.

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Article Citation

Biernoff, J. (1956). Psychiatric Quarterly. XXIX, 1955. Psychoanal. Q., 25:619-620

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