Customer Service | Help | FAQ | PEP-Easy | Report a Data Error | About
Tip: To use OneNote for note taking…

PEP-Web Tip of the Day

You can use Microsoft OneNote to take notes on PEP-Web. OneNote has some very nice and flexible note taking capabilities.

You can take free form notes, you can copy fragments using the clipboard and paste to One Note, and Print to OneNote using the Print to One Note printer driver. Capture from PEP-Web is somewhat limited.

For the complete list of tips, see PEP-Web Tips on the PEP-Web support page.

(1967). Meetings of the New York Psychoanalytic Society. Psychoanal Q., 36:323.

(1967). Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 36:323

Meetings of the New York Psychoanalytic Society


Dr. Sachs considers the importance of interpreting reality that has become admixed with fantasy, and the role of the superego in reality testing. Difficulties are frequently encountered in distinguishing between fantasy and reality in the 'memories' of traumatic events described by patients. In the early years of psychoanalysis there seems to have developed a pragmatic attitude that it made little difference whether a remembered traumatic event was real or fantasied: subjective drive-dependent experience was accorded the primary ideological significance. More recent emphasis has been on 'conflict patterns' and tends to approximate Freud's view that unconscious fantasies are roughly equivalent to actual traumatic events. In certain cases, the necessity to uncover or reconstruct specific traumatic events may be limited to a vital, repressed detail that alters the meaning, or to the truth or falsity of the event. It is especially important to delineate actuality when this has been denied prior to repression; when the denial comes from an authoritative source—such as a parent—later superego function may interfere with reality testing. Dr. Sachs presents a case report to demonstrate this problem as well as that of the effect of parental prohibition and denial of reality.

There appears to be more masochism and guilt created from acts of reality than fantasy if these occur when superego formation is already well developed. In Dr. Sachs' patient there was frequent confusion between self and object and an interference with certain aspects of reality testing as well as guilt feelings. The reality distortion related more to superego demand than to ego distortion. For this patient the distinction in reality between who was lying and who was guilty was vital to the resolution of her obsessional symptoms and her anxiety. Greenacre, in Re-evaluation of Working Through, has made the distinction between fantasy and actual traumatic events in a patient's past. Repetitive elements in dreams, jokes, stories, and actions alert us to the possibility of repressed, real traumas. Sachs emphasizes that obsessional thoughts concerned predominantly with visual imagery denote a more severe ego regression than those expressed predominantly in words.

[This is a summary or excerpt from the full text of the book or article. The full text of the document is available to subscribers.]

Copyright © 2020, Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing, ISSN 2472-6982 Customer Service | Help | FAQ | Download PEP Bibliography | Report a Data Error | About

WARNING! This text is printed for personal use. It is copyright to the journal in which it originally appeared. It is illegal to redistribute it in any form.