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(1973). Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. XI, 1972: Attachment and Exploration: A Systematic Approach to the Study of Separation-Adaptation Phenomena in Response to Nursery School Entry. Kato van Leeuen and June M. Tuma. Pp. 314-340.. Psychoanal Q., 42:167-168.
Psychoanalytic Electronic Publishing: Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. XI, 1972: Attachment and Exploration: A Systematic Approach to the Study of Separation-Adaptation Phenomena in Response to Nursery School Entry. Kato van Leeuen and June M. Tuma. Pp. 314-340.
This study attempts systematically to appraise separation readiness and adaptation of children entering nursery school. Excellent preliminary discussion precedes presentation of method and data. Using concepts evolved from primate research, the authors describe two observable and scorable sets of behavior: ('A'—movement toward the mother) and exploratory behavior ('B'—movement from the mother toward the environment). Sixteen children (seven boys, nine girls) and their mothers are the subjects. Ten pairs were intensively studied three to six months before entry; all were studied at and after entry. Pre-entry scores ranged, as expected, from low to high. Upon entry all showed increased 'A' and decreased 'B'. When divided by age (younger than three years, two months; older than three years, three months), a marked difference emerged. Contrary to expectation, the older group had higher 'A' scores prior to entry. Reversal of this difference after entry was due to the rise in 'A' scores of the younger group.
The authors report the following conclusions and implications. 1, Regardless of prior attachment to mother, nursery school was a stress. Established object constancy did not alter this; children could 'visualize mother but still need her'. Factors other than object constancy need elucidation. 2, If the mother is adequately responsive to the child's increased libidinal demands, this interference
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in the individuation process is transient. 3, Social age, with a turning point around three years, three months, appears to be highly relevant to readiness. 4, Separation distress on entry is age appropriate behavior. 5, It appears that we tend toward premature nursery school placement. 6, Teachers should encourage rather than discourage the adaptive turning toward mother that occurs.
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(1973). Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. XI, 1972. Psychoanal. Q., 42:167-168